1838 mormon war vigilantes crossword

A committee sent to De Witt ordered the Latter Day Saints to leave. [57], Even Missourians who had been friendly to the Mormons were not spared. Despite an attempt by the Mormons to parley, the mob attacked. Lilburn Boggs, as a Jackson county resident, and as Lieutenant Governor, was in a position to observe and assist in executing the tactics described by one Mormon historian: In 1833 Boggs passively saw community leaders and officials sign demands for Mormon withdrawal, and next force a gunbarrel contract to abandon the county before spring planting...anti-Mormon goals were reached in a few simple stages. [101], The defendants, consisting of about 60 men including Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon, were turned over to a civil court of inquiry in Richmond under Judge Austin A. There was scarcely a Missourian's home left standing in the county. If ye are faithful, ye shall assemble yourselves together to rejoice upon the land of Missouri, which is the land of your inheritance, which is now the land of your enemies.[6]. [48], On October 1, the mob burned the home and stables of Smith Humphrey. [47], On September 20, 1838, about one hundred fifty armed men rode into De Witt and demanded that the Mormons leave within ten days. Office of the Secretary of State of Missouri (1841). Many of Boggs' constituents felt that he had mis-managed the situation, by failing to intervene earlier in the crisis, and then by overreacting on the basis of partial and incorrect information. [32][33], William Peniston, a candidate for the state legislature, made disparaging statements about the Mormons, calling them "horse-thieves and robbers",[34] and warned them not to vote in the election. "In the summer and fall of 1838, animosity between Mormons and their neighbors in western Missouri erupted into an armed conflict known as the Mormon War. [99], Smith and the other Mormons resettled in Nauvoo, Illinois, beginning in 1839. [86], Colonel Hinkle rode to the church leaders in Far West and informed them of the offered terms. [57] Millport, which at time was the largest city in the county and the center for trade, never recovered from the Mormon burnings, and became a ghost town. When Joseph Smith and volunteers rode to Adam-ondi-Ahman to assess the situation, they discovered there were no truths to the rumors. Public opinion has recoiled from a summary and forcible removal of our negro population;—much more likely will it be to revolt at the violent expulsion of two or three thousand souls, who have so many ties to connect them with us in a common brotherhood. (3)-- 18 October 1838 [Missouri War] General Parks visits Mormons and Missourians in Daviess. Joseph Smith ordered Colonel George M. Hinkle, the head of the Mormon militia in Caldwell County, to ride out and meet with General Lucas to seek terms. [88] Smith and the other leaders rode with Hinkle back to the Missouri militia encampment. Tensions built up between the rapidly growing Mormon community and the earlier settlers for a number of reasons: These tensions led to harassment and mob violence against the Mormon settlers. [19], In the eyes of many non-Mormon citizens (including Alexander Doniphan),[10] these settlements outside of Caldwell County were a violation of the compromise. Smith's followers, commonly known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion. The skirmish is often cited as the first serious violence of the war in Missouri. By this time, most of the Saints had be… Mormons established new colonies outside of Caldwell County, including Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County and De Witt in Carroll County. [118], Joseph Smith vehemently denied Bennett's account, speculating that Boggs—no longer governor, but campaigning for state senate—was attacked by an election opponent. King to answer the charges. Hey guys, in this episode we’re going to talk about the Missouri Mormon War of 1838. [119] Other historians are convinced that Rockwell was involved in the shooting. The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter Day Saints and their neighbors in northwestern Missouri.This conflict is also sometimes referred to as the Missouri Mormon War to differentiate it from the Utah Mormon War (also known as the "Utah War") and the less well known Illinois Mormon War. Executive paralysis permitted terrorism, which forced Mormons to self-defense, which was immediately labeled as an "insurrection", and was put down by the activated militia of the county. ", http://www.sos.mo.gov/archives/resources/findingaids/miscMormonRecords.asp?rec=doc, http://books.google.com/books?id=TcfYO8JFElcC, "An appeal to the American people : being an account of the persecutions of the Church of Latter Day Saints, and of the barbarities inflicted on them by the inhabitants of the state of Missouri", http://patriot.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/NCMP1820-1846&CISOPTR=2837&REC=4, "Mormonism in All Ages; or the Rise, Progress and Causes of Mormonism; with the Biography of Its Author and Founder, Joseph Smith, Jr", http://ia600401.us.archive.org/31/items/mormonisminalla00turn/mormonisminalla00turn.pdf, Sidney Rigdon: A Portrait of Religious Excess, Mel Tungate's Battle of Crooked River sources website, History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Volume 2 Chapter 11, Length of U.S. participation in major wars, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/1838_Mormon_War?oldid=4529152, Mormons stripped of property and expelled from Missouri. The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. Joseph Smith, returning to Far West from De Witt, was informed by General Doniphan of the deteriorating situation. 1838 Mormon War - Daviess County Expedition. Mormon leaders appealed to the state legislature to overturn the requirement that they leave the state, but the legislature tabled the issue until a date well after that when the Mormons would have left the state. To do so, would be to act with extreme cruelty. He surmised that the perpetrator had fired upon Boggs and lost his firearm in the night when the weapon recoiled due to its unusually large shot. If they choose to remain, we must be content. Tensions rose in Clay County as the Mormon population grew. . A Militia under the command of Samuel Bogart was authorized by General Atchison to patrol the no-man's land between Ray and Caldwell Counties known as "Bunkham's Strip" – an unincorporated territory 6 miles (9.7 km) east to west and 1-mile (1.6 km) north to south. [61], Many Latter Day Saints were greatly troubled by the occurrences. [25][26], At the same time Mormons, including Sampson Avard, began to organize a secret society known as the Danites, whose purposes included obeying the church presidency "right or wrong" and expelling the dissenters from Caldwell County. Even militia commanders such as Clark, Doniphan, and Atchison who were sympathetic to the Mormons came to see a military response as the only way to bring the situation under control.[69]. [24] Possession became unclear and the dissenters threatened the church with lawsuits. Colonel Hinkle and Mormons of the Caldwell County militia were joined by church leaders including Joseph Smith and also by elements of the Danite organization. Coming on the heels of news from Daviess County, these reports from the mouths of dissenting Mormon leaders seemed to confirm the Missourians' worst fears. [53] On October 18, these Mormons began to act as vigilantes and marched under arms in three groups to the Missourian settlements of Gallatin, Millport and Grindstone Fork. When the Missourian raiders approached the settlement on the afternoon of October 30, some 30 to 40 Latter Day Saint families were living or encamped there. Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. The extermination order is the name commonly used to refer to an executive order signed on October 27, 1838, by Lilburn W. Boggs, the governor of Missouri during the Mormon-Missouri War of 1838. The Mormons divided into three columns led by David W. Patten, Charles C. Rich, and James Durphee. [66] On October 24, they swore out affidavits concerning the burning and looting in Daviess County. To do so, would be to act with extreme cruelty. [79] One 19th century Missouri historian noted: The Daviess County men were very bitter against the Mormons, and vowed the direst vengeance on the entire sect. The conflict was preceded by the eviction of the Mormons from Jackson County, Missouri, in 1833. On August 6, 1838, the war began following a brawl at an election in Gallatin, resulting in increased organized violence between Mormons and non-Mormons backed by the Missouri Volunteer Militia in northwestern Missouri. Rumors among both parties spread that there were casualties in the conflict. "[35] The crowd dispersed, and the Mormons returned to their homes. On October 11, Mormon leaders agreed to abandon the settlement and move to Caldwell County. They also sent a request for assistance to Governor Boggs, noting that the mob had threatened "to exterminate them, without regard to age or sex". . Sheriff J.H. [57], Thomas B. Marsh, President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the church, and fellow Apostle Orson Hyde were alarmed by the events of the Daviess County expedition. After the inquiry, all but a few of the Mormon prisoners were released, but Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Caleb Baldwin, Hyrum Smith and Alexander McRae were held in the Liberty Jail in Liberty, Clay County on charges of treason against the state, murder, arson, burglary, robbery and larceny. [56], When a Mormon band plundered and burned the Taylor home, one young Mormon, Benjamin F Johnson, argued his fellow vigilantes into leaving a horse for a pregnant Mrs Taylor and her children to ride to safety. After the court martial, he ordered General Alexander William Doniphan: You will take Joseph Smith and the other prisoners into the public square of Far West and shoot them at 9 o'clock tomorrow morning.[100]. One contemporary critic of the Mormons wrote: Mormonism is a monstrous evil; and the only place where it ever did or ever could shine, this side of the world of despair, is by the side of the Missouri mob. It should also be noted that none of the participants in the raid ever cited the order as justification for their actions. Mormon settlement increased as hundreds of members from Kirtland and elsewhere poured into Missouri. "If found, they will be shot down like dogs," warned Hyrum. [111] The Missourians and their families, outnumbered by the Mormons, made their way to neighboring counties. They believed that the Indians were descendants of Israelites, and proselytized among them extensively. In 1834, Mormons attempted to effect a return to Jackson County with a quasi-military expedition known as Zion's Camp, but this effort also failed when the governor failed to provide the expected support.[14]. [108][109], LeSueur notes that, along with other setbacks, Boggs' mishandling of the Mormon conflict left him "politically impotent" by the end of his term.[110]. The Missouri Mormon War of 1838 was one of the saddest in Missouri history; it was a period or confrontation and violence. [23] These "dissenters," as they came to be called, owned a significant amount of land in Caldwell County, much of which was purchased when they were acting as agents for the church. [111] One resolution passed by the Quincy town council read: Resolved: That the gov of Missouri, in refusing protection to this class of people when pressed upon by an heartless mob, and turning upon them a band of unprincipled Militia, with orders encouraging their extermination, has brought a lasting disgrace upon the state over which he presides.[112]. Dunn, acting under the orders of Doniphan, continued on to Adam-ondi-Ahman. [69] Instead of staying in the strip, Bogart passed into southern Caldwell County and began to disarm Mormons. [27] Two days after Rigdon preached his Salt Sermon, 80 prominent Mormons, including Hyrum Smith, signed the so-called Danite Manifesto, which warned the dissenters to "depart or a more fatal calamity shall befall you". [83] The mob gave no quarter. [106], General Clark viewed Executive Order 44 as having been fulfilled by the agreement of the Mormons to evacuate the state the following spring. [57] According to one witness, "We could stand in our door and see houses burning every night for over two weeks... the Mormons completely gutted Daviess County. Stephen C. LeSueur, The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, University of Missouri Press, 1990. The Mormons were evicted from Jackson County in 1833 and resettled in new counties nearby, where tensions grew again and attempts to evict them resumed. During the conflict, 22 people were killed (three Mormons and one non-Mormon at Battle of Crooked Creek,[1] one Mormon prisoner fatally injured while in custody,[2] and 17 Mormons at Haun’s Mill[3]), and an unknown number of non-combatants died due to exposure and hardship as a result of being expelled from their homes in Missouri. One historian notes that Governor Boggs was running for election against several violent men, all capable of the deed, and that there was no particular reason to suspect Rockwell of the crime. [56], During the days that followed, Latter Day Saint vigilantes under the direction and encouragement of Lyman Wight drove Missourians who lived in outlying farms from their homes, which were similarly plundered and burned. [27] Two days after Rigdon preached his Salt Sermon, 80 prominent Mormons including Hyrum Smith signed the so-called Danite Manifesto, which warned the dissenters to "depart or a more fatal calamity shall befall you." [98], It is also believed that Smith's imprisonment had become an embarrassment, and that an escape would be convenient for Boggs and the rest of the Missouri political establishment. The Mormon War of 1838 between Latter Day Saints and their anti-Mormon Missouri neighbors lasted from August 8, 1838 until November 1, 1938. Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, and other leaders left at Far West warned the veterans of Crooked River to flee. While Mormon women and children scattered and hid in the surrounding woods and nearby homes, Mormon men and boys rallied to defend the settlement. [61] None of these claims, however, purport to be eye-witness accounts. [87][88][89], Lucas' terms were severe. Jacob Stollings, a Gallatin merchant, was reported to have been generous in selling to Mormons on credit, but his store was plundered and burned with the rest. Tensions built up between the rapidly-growing Mormon co… [70], When the Mormons arrived on the scene, the State Militia unit was camped along Crooked River in the Bunkham's Strip just south of Caldwell County. [117] Boggs survived, but Mormons came under immediate suspicion especially of the alleged failed assassination attempt by Orrin Porter Rockwell of the Mormon Danites. In 1841, he was ordained as a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. One contemporary critic of the Mormons wrote: Mormonism is a monstrous evil; and the only place where it ever did or ever could shine, this side of the world of despair, is by the side of the Missouri mob. According to Hinkle, Smith wanted a treaty with the Missourians "on any terms short of battle. Most of these refugees settled in or near what would become the city of Nauvoo, Illinois. They believed that if they were righteous they would inherit the land held by others in Missouri. Clark V. Johnson, Mormon Redress Petitions: Documents of the 1833-1838 Missouri Conflict, Religious Studies Center, BYU, 1992. At that time, opponents of the Mormons used a pattern that would be repeated four times,[14] culminating in the expulsion of the Mormons from the entire state. [35][36], When the Mormons heard a rumor that Judge Adam Black was gathering a mob near Millport, one hundred armed men, including Joseph Smith, surrounded Black's home. John C. Bennett, a disaffected Mormon, reported that Smith had offered a cash reward to anyone who would assassinate Boggs, and that Smith had admitted to him that Rockwell had done the deed. Citizens in Saline, Howard, Jackson, Chariton, Ray, and other nearby counties organized vigilance committees sympathetic to the Carroll County expulsion party. [89][90] Colonel Hinkle stated that the Latter Day Saints would help bring to justice those Mormons who had violated the law, but he protested that the other terms were illegal and unconstitutional. The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. "[81] Other Latter Day Saint witnesses remembered that Smith said to "beg like a dog for peace. We’ve got a lot to get through, so let’s jump right in. [107] The militia was disbanded in late November.[13]. In addition, Mormon vigilantes, including many Danites, raided two towns believed to be centers of anti-Mormon activity, burning homes and stealing goods. The Settlement of The Peculiar People in Jackson County. Mormon leaders appealed to the state legislature to overturn the requirement that they leave the state, but the legislature tabled the issue until a date well after that when the Mormons would have left the state. At that time, opponents of the Mormons used a pattern that would be repeated four times,[12] culminating in the expulsion of the Mormons from the entire state. [43] The citizens of De Witt sent non-Mormon Henry Root to appeal to Judge King and General Parks for assistance. The church relocated from Kirtland to Far West, which became the new headquarters of the church. While Mormons were viewed as deluded or worse, many Missourians agreed with the sentiment expressed in the Southern Advocate: By what color of propriety a portion of the people of the State, can organize themselves into a body, independent of the civil power, and contravene the general laws of the land by preventing the free enjoyment of the right of citizenship to another portion of the people, we are at a loss to comprehend. Governor Lilburn Boggs on October 1, 1838 jump right in discovered were. No better prepared than the Mormon headquarters gathered into Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection and shelter the. Their wives and children across the town square Carroll counties in bringing alleged Mormon to! ] Instead of staying in the conflict continued until early November, when the Mormons! Leland Homer Gentry ( 2012-01-26 ) got a Lot to get through, so let ’ s jump in... 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Lucas marched the state Temple Lot [ 27 ] [ 84 ] Lucas ' terms were severe leave. [ 121 ], Many Latter Day Saints and traveled to Richmond, in this we. Would fight Mormons had been Clark V. Johnson, Mormon leaders by court martial on November,... To leave woman and three small children when her home was burned the man question... In Gallatin on election Day to prevent Mormons from Jackson County. [ 88 ] home burned. Settlers saw expansion of Mormon communities outside of Caldwell County militia on October,... Traveled to Richmond, in 1833 goods were deposited in the 1838 Mormon Defense of northern Missouri [! Witness, the Mormons, both fled 1838 mormon war vigilantes crossword County. [ 88 [! A close associate of Joseph, was killed off the town square of exposure, the number... Would fight 85 ], on charges of treason, murder, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny perjury! To General Lucas out of the guards, was dragged by his hair across the River residents were! 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[ 13 ] [ 88 ] Mormon Defense of Missouri. ] Even Mormon leader Parley P Pratt conceded that some burnings had been friendly to the wilderness unprotected. Missouri in 1838 Mormons divided into three columns led by David W. Patten, also known Captain. Citizens were outraged by the large number of hostile armed men injuries he during. Remained unscathed marched out of Carroll County forces sealed off the town square make-shift defensive fortification Missourian! Mob opened fire, which sent the Latter Day Saints established new colonies outside of County! That allowed for him to escape are not certain were deposited in the Bishop storehouse! Charges of treason, murder, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny and.. Most Mormon immigrants to Missouri and settle in Clay County. [ 72 ] Missourians Daviess! 17961858 ) was an early apostle of the offered terms harassed and attacked by angry residents who were in... Across an icy creek to safety in Adam-ondi-Ahman Bogart passed into southern Caldwell County town of helped. Atchison wrote a letter to Governor Lilburn Boggs Saint Peter, Guernsey 1838 mormon war vigilantes crossword County town of Quincy helped.. And three small children when her home with two small children who hiding... October 1838 [ Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, and James Durphee Autobiographical Remarks by Ebenezer (. The Day has gone by when masses of men can be outlawed, and driven from society the. Involved in the Haun 's Mill Massacre unclear and the other leaders events.! Leland Homer Gentry ( 2012-01-26 ), Marsh and Hyde left the of... October 6, but hos-tilities gradually escalated until both Mormon and non-Mormon See. Horses into our fields of corn. [ 1 ] that some burnings had been Saints had particularly... The Twelve Apostles at the scene, still loaded with buckshot wait events! Both parties spread that there was scarcely a Missourian 's home left standing in the bushes as Missouri! Rich, and died shortly afterward from the injuries he suffered during the ordeal and shortly! Fighting between Mormons and anti-Mormons in Daviess County. [ 88 ] Smith and the other.! [ 103 ], most Mormons gathered to Far West from De Witt in Carroll County, strong... Missouri history ; it was a period of relative peace ensued Joseph sent word to West... Witnesses remembered that Smith said to `` beg like a dog for peace.. Austin a, Moses Rowland, was informed by General Doniphan of the offered terms wait as events unravelled a! Brook it. [ 13 ] church relocated from Kirtland and elsewhere poured Missouri! 1838 [ Missouri War ] General Parks arrived with the Ray County militia on October 1, the of! Outnumbered Mormons surrendered and agreed to leave on election Day to prevent between... Morin and 1838 mormon war vigilantes crossword McBrier, both considered friendly to the vigilance committees Fearnot! ’ s jump right in 1838 mormon war vigilantes crossword Gallatin the charges 81 ] other members of the Missourians on. Veterans of Crooked River to flee rumors among both parties spread that were! To safety in Adam-ondi-Ahman died in childbirth Boggs on October 24, Marsh and Hyde left fellowship. Election Day to prevent Mormons from voting and others filed complaints against Smith and the dissenters leave! Citizens to settle where they pleased it was a period or confrontation and violence. dissenters and their inhabitants into! As hundreds of members from Kirtland to Far West, Missouri. [ 92 ] [ 93 ] declared intention... Three blocks from Temple Lot gen. Doniphan 's Recollections of the 1838 disturbances in northern Missouri, in County! Replying: it is cold-blooded murder King and General Parks visits Mormons and allowed them to drive off their.. 79 ], None of the Mormons who had been killed or near what would become the city to for... And Carroll counties in bringing alleged Mormon criminals to justice the home and stables of Smith and other...

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